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Rādhā

the wife of Adhiratha, and foster mother of Karṇa.

Rādhā-bhāva-mūrti

the mood of Rādhārāṇī.

Rādhā-kuṇḍa

the bathing place of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, a sacred pond near Govardhana Hill in Vraja that was created by Rādhārāṇī and her gopī companions. It is supreme among all the holy places in Vraja and the most exalted holy place for all Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas. The eight major Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava temples of Vṛndāvana also exist at Rādhā-kuṇḍa, as well as the bhajana-kutīras of Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī and Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī. This is the site of the most intimate loving affairs of Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, and the waters of Rādhā-kuṇḍa are considered non-different from Rādhārāṇī and productive of love of Godhead.

Rādhārāṇī

Lord Kṛṣṇa's most intimate consort, who the personification of the internal, pleasure potency of Lord Kṛṣṇa. She appeared in this world as the daughter of King Vṛsabhānu and Kirti-devī and is the Queen of Vṛndāvana. The most favorite consort of Kṛṣṇa in Vrindavana, situated on Lord Kṛṣṇa's left on altars and pictures; The feminine counterpart of Lord Kṛṣṇa. She directs the ānanda potency (hlādinī-śakti) for the transcendental pleasure of the Lord. See Daivi-prakṛti, Kṛṣṇa, Sac-cid-ānanda.

Rādhāṣtamī

the appearance anniversary of Śrimatī Rādhārāni.

Rādhikā

Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Rāga-bhakti

devotional service in transcendental rapture.

Rāga-mārga

the path of devotional service in spontaneous love of Godhead.

Rāgānuga-bhakti

devotional service following the spontaneous loving service of the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana.

Rāgātmika-bhakti

spontaneous devotional service of the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana according to their transcendental attachment.

Rāga

attachment in ecstatic love of God.

Rāghava

Lord Rāmacandra, who appeared in the Raghu dynasty, the dynasty of the sun.

Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī

one of the Six Gosvamis of Vṛndāvana. He appeared in 1506 as the son of Tapana Miśra. He first met Lord Caitanya in Benares when the Lord stayed at his father's home for two months. He rendered direct service to the Lord and received His mercy. After the demise of his parents, he went to Purī and associated with the Lord, cooking for Him and taking His remnants. He was especially well-known for his sweetly singing the Bhāgavatam to different tunes, his super-excellent cooking and his never hearing, or speaking about, either worldly topics or criticism of Vaiṣṇavas. On the order of the Lord, he proceeded to Vṛndāvana and associated there with the other Gosvāmīs. He did not write books. His disciples assisted with the construction of the Govindaji Temple for Rūpa Gosvāmī's Deity. He disappeared in 1580 at the age of seventy-four.

Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī

one of the Six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana. He appeared in 1495. He was the son of the fabulously wealthy Govardhana Majumdara, the younger brother of the then Zamindar Hiraṇya Majumdara in the village of Krishnapura in West Bengal. His forefathers were Vaiṣṇavas, and when he was a boy he got the association and blessings of Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura. He was mad with the desire to join Lord Caitanya in Jagannātha Purī, but every time he ran away from home his parents would have him captured and brought back. Finally, he was successful. He received the mercy of Lord Caitanya and served for many years as the assistant of Svarūpa Dāmodara. He was thus known as the Raghu of Svarūpa. Later, he was sent to Vṛndāvana and lived in Rādhā-kuṇḍa, performing severe austerities. In his later years he subsisted on just a few drops of buttermilk each day. He wrote important texts on devotion, his only concern being the chanting of the Holy Name. He ascended in 1571 at the age of 76.

Rahūgaṇa Mahārāja

the king who received spiritual instruction from Jaḍa Bharata.

Railhead

town or station at the end of the railway line; ending point.

Raita

fruits or semicooked vegetables in lightly seasoned yogurt.

Raivataka

a mountain near Dvārakā.

Rāja-pāla

the governor of the state.

Rāja-yoga

Patañjali's process of imagining a form of the Absolute Truth within many forms.

Rajaguṇa

the mode of passion of material nature.

Rājarṣi

a great saintly king.

Rājasa-ahaṅkāra

egotism in passion.

Rājasūya-yajña

an elaborate sacrifice that establishes who is the emperor of the world. It was performed by Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira before the Battle of Kurukṣetra and attended by Lord Kṛṣṇa. (Sabhā Parva in Mahābhārata)

Rajas

the material mode of passion.

Raja

rule or sovereignty. Used to describe the British rule; king or prince.

Rajo-guṇa

the material mode of passion. See Modes of nature.

Rākṣasa-gaṇa

man-eating demons.

Rākṣasa

a class of asura or ungodly people. The Rākṣasa are always opposed to God's will. Generally, they are man-eaters and have grotesque forms.

Rakta

red in the Treta-yuga.

Rāma-navamī

the appearance anniversary of Lord Rāmacandra.

Rāma-rājya

a perfect, Vedic kingdom following the example of Lord Rāmacandra-the incarnation of the Supreme Lord appearing as the perfect king.

Rāmacandra

the eighteenth incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the killer of the tenheaded demon king, Rāvaṇa. Rāma was exiled to the forest on the order of His father, Mahārāja Daśaratha. His wife Sītā was kidnapped by Rāvaṇa, but by employing a huge army of monkeys, who were the powerful and intelligent offspring of demigods, He regained his wife in battle, and eventually His ancestral kingdom too. This great epic is recounted in Vālmīki's Rāmāyaṇa.

Rāmānanda Rāya

an intimate associate of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in His later pastimes.

Rāmānujācārya

a great eleventh-century Vaiṣṇava spiritual master of the Śrī-sampradāya.

Rāmāyaṇa

the original epic history about Lord Rāmacandra and Sītā, written by Vālmīki Muni.

Rāma

name of the Absolute Truth as the source of unlimited pleasure for transcendentalists; incarnation of the Supreme Lord, Lord Rāmacandra as a perfect, righteous king, who appeared in Ayodhya in the Tretā-yuga; Literally, the supreme pleasure; a prominent Sanskrit name of the Personality of Godhead. See Kṛṣṇa.

Ramā

Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune and eternal consort of the Supreme Lord, Nārāyaṇa.

Ranaghat

a town in the West Bengal district of Nadia just south of Navadvīpa on the railway to Calcutta. Ranaghat is the government headquarters of the Ranaghat subdivision of the Nadia district. It covers an area of about two-and-a-half square miles. Ṭhākura Bhaktivinoda's family lived here at different times.

Raṅganātha

Deity of Lord Viṣṇu worshiped in Śrī Raṅgam.

Ranga-bhumi

This is where the wrestling match took place between Krsna, Balaram and the professional wrestlers, Canura and Mustika.

Rāsa dance

Lord Kṛṣṇa's pleasure dance with the cowherd maidens of Vṛndāvana, Vrajabhūmi. It is a pure exchange of spiritual love between the Lord and His most advanced, confidential servitors.

Rāsa-līlā

the group dancing of Kṛṣṇa and His cowherd girlfriends in His Vṛndāvana pastimes.

Rasa-yātrā

festival of the rasa dancing of Kṛṣṇa.

Rasābhāsa

incompatible overlapping of transcendental mellows.

Rāsādi-vilāsī

the enjoyer of the rāsa dance and other pastimes.

Rasam powder

a South Indian spice blend used to flavour the famous rasam, a chili-hot soup dish made from toovar (arhar) dal lentils. Ingredients vary. The home-made rasam powder recipe contains mustard seeds, coriander seeds, dried hot red chilies, black peppercorns, fenugreek seeds, and cumin seeds. Rasam powder can be purchased ready-mixed in packets or tins from Indian grocery shops.

Rasātala

the lowest planet in the lowest planetary system (Pātāla) ins

Rasa

relationship between the Lord and the living entities; mellow, or the sweet taste of a relationship, especially between the Lord and the living entities. They are of five principal varieties-neutral relationship (santa-rasa), relationship as servant (dāsya-rasa), as friend (sakhya-rasa), parent (vātsalya-rasa) and conjugal lover (mādhurya-rasa). Eternal spiritual relationship with Kṛṣṇa. There are five rasas: śānta (passive awe and reverence); dāsya (servitude); sakhya (friendship); vātsalya (parenthood); and mādhurya (conjugal love). According to his specific kind of rasa, the soul displays a spiritual form as Kṛṣṇa's eternal servant, friend, parent or conjugal lover. Just as our present material body permits us to engage in karma (physical activities), so the spiritual rasa-body permits us to engage in līlā (Kṛṣṇa's endlessly expanding spiritual activities) See Ecstasy, Līlā.

Ratha-yātrā

the festival celebrating Kṛṣṇa's return to Vṛndāvana; The journey of the chariots, a traditional Vaiṣṇava festival held every year at Jagannātha Purī in Orissa. In Purī the devotees place the immense Deity forms of Jagannātha, Baladeva and Lady Subhadrā on three towering, huge gaily decorated canopied chariots, each having sixteen wheels. Thousands of people pull these cars to the Guṇḍicā temple, where Lord Jagannātha abides for seven days, after which there is a return Ratha-yātrā to the Jagannātha Temple. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His associates gathered every year to observe this celebration with a massive festival of saṅkīrtana. This great celebration of Ratha-yātrā is now being held all over the world by the arrangement of Śrīla A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.

Ratha

temple cart or chariot, used during religious festival to carry the Deities.

Rati

a strong attraction to God that precedes bhāva (mature ecstasy) and prema (mature love of God).

Rationalism

The approach to philosophy that holds reason (Lat. ratio) to be the primary cause of knowledge. See Anumāna, Descartes, Existentialism, Hawking, Kant, Marxism, Natural theology, Phenomenology, Positivism, Pragmatism.

Raty-ābhāsa

a preliminary glimpse of attachment.

Raudra-rasa

one of the indirect relationships, anger.

Rāvaṇa

a powerful ten-headed demon king of Laṅkā who wanted to build a staircase to heaven but was killed by Kṛṣṇa in His incarnation as Lord Rāmacandra. The pastime is described in the epic poem Rāmāyaṇa, by the sage Vālmīki.

Reality

That which is. Reality is opposite to appearance. The Sanskrit equivalent is tattva. See Tattva.

Recaka

the state of equilibrium attained by offering the exhaled breath into the inhaled breath.

Reflective, creative, and critical thinking

Three modes of anumāna. Reflective thinking begins in wonder about something perceived. Out of wonder, questions arise. Creative thinking begins as a mental effort to answer the questions of reflection. Sometimes these questions are answered spontaneously, by intuition, insight or inspiraton, rather than by deliberate effort. At its highest stage of development, creative thinking is śāstramūlaka philosophical speculation. Critical thinking examines to what extent an idea or argument fits the evidence and meets the requirements of logic. See Logic.

Reflexivity

The condition in which something is directed (reflected) back to itself. Hence, reflexive criticism is self-defeating. It comes from the Latin reflectare, to bend back.

Reincarnation

From the Latin re (again) and incarnare (make into flesh). Reincarnation it is the return of the soul to a physical body after death, also called transmigration. See Karma, Life after death, Saṁsāra.

Relativism

Also known as the homo mensura (man is the measure) theory. Relativists reject any truth that is absolute. They argue that because each person sees things differently, truth exists individually for each person. It is therefore false to say one person is right and another is wrong. Relativism in Western philosophy is traced back to Protagoras, a contemporary of Socrates. See Absolute, Humanism.

Relativity theory

Albert Einstein compared his theory of relativity to a building with two stories. The ground floor is the special theory of relativity. It applies to all physical phenomena except gravitation. The general theory of relativity is the upper floor; it explains the law of gravitation. Einstein's theory combines two principles. One is that motion is relative. For example, when a table-tennis ball rolls across the surface of the playing table, its motion is relative to the table. In the classical physics of Newton, the rolling ball is considered to be the object in motion, and the table is considered to be at rest. However, if at first the ball was at rest on the tabletop, and we were to move the table, then both the table and the ball would move in relation to one another. Relativity theory argues that since all matter in the universe is in motion, the ball rolling upon the surface of a moving table is the actual model for motion in the universe. If space and time are taken to be the table, they contribute motion to the movement of all things. The old model of a ball rolling upon a tabletop at rest is therefore an illusion. The second principle of relativity is that the speed of light is always the same, even when light is emitted from a source that moves at a great speed towards, or away from, the observer. One of the significant differences between relativity theory and classical theory is seen in the calculation of the mass of a physical object. Mass is defined as the amount of matter in a physical object which is measured as that object's resistance to acceleration. Mass is different from, but proportional to, weight. Classical theory attributes a steady mass to any given physical object. Relativity theory predicts that the mass of a thing will vary according to its motion. Relativity is considered an advancement over, but not a replacement of, classical physics, which is still useful. From a logical point of view, the two theories are incompatible. The third important physical theory, quantum mechanics, is likewise incompatible with classical theory, and also differs significantly from relativity theory. See Quantum mechanical theory.

Revelation

Literally, it means an unveiling or a revealing. In Latin, velare means to cover or to veil (from velum, curtain or veil). Thus revelare means to pull back the veil. As light and darkness are separated by a veil, so too are good and evil. To step behind that veil into darkness is evil. By revelation, the veil is pulled back, removing by light the darkness of evil. See Problem of evil.

Ṛg Veda

one of the four Vedas, the original scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself.

Rickshaw

two or three wheeled passenger vehicle.

Rishi

a sage.

Ṛk-saṁhitā

the mantra text of the Ṛg Veda.

Rohiṇī

the wife of Vasudeva, and the mother of Lord Balarāma.

Romaharṣaṇa

the father of Sūta Gosvāmī. He was killed by Lord Balarāma for his offenses.

Ṛṣabhadeva

an incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a devotee king who, after instructing his sons in spiritual life, renounced His kingdom for a life of austerity.

Ṛṣi

a synonym for a sage who performs austerities.

Ṛtvik

one who acts on behalf of his preceptor.

Rūḍha-bhāva

the love of the gopīs.

Rūḍha

advanced symptom of conjugal mellow found among the queens of Dvārakā; included in mahābhāva.

Rudras

the expansions of Lord Śiva who rule over the material mode of ignorance.

Rudra

see: Śiva

Rukmaratha

the son of Śalya, the King of Madras. He was killed by Śveta, the son of Drupada, during the Kurukṣetra war.

Rukmī

the son of King Bhīṣmaka, the King of Vidarbha, and the brother of Rukmiṇī, the first wife of Lord Kṛṣṇa. His hatred for Lord Kṛṣṇa eventually got him killed by Lord Baladeva during a chess game.

Rukmiṇī

Lord Kṛṣṇa's principal queen in Dvārakā; the chief of Lord Kṛṣṇa's wives.

Rukmini-Dvarakādhisa

the transcendental couple manifested as Kṛṣṇa, the Lord of Dvārakā, and His queen Rukminī; name of the Deities of ISKCON Los Angeles.

Rūpa Gosvāmī

chief of the six great spiritual master Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana who were authorized by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu to establish and distribute the philosophy of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. He extensively researched the scriptures and established the philosophy taught by Lord Caitanya on an unshakable foundation. Thus Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas are known as Rūpānugas, followers of Rūpa Gosvāmī. He is also known as the rasācārya, or the teacher of devotional mellows, as exemplified by his book, Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu. It is the duty and the aspiration of every Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava to become his servant and follow his path.

Rūpānuga

one who follows in the footsteps of Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Rupee

main unit of currency used in India.

Russel, Bertrand

Very influential British philosopher of the twentieth century (1872-1970) who was especially interested in mathematical logic and the basic problems of philosophy (appearance and reality, general principles, the value and limits of philosophy, and so on). In a letter of 20 September 1966, Russel suggested to his editor at Oxford University Press that a book of his then in production ought to have a cover illustration of a monkey tumbling over a precipice and exclaiming, 'Oh dear, I wish I hadn't read Einstein.' On no account should the monkey look like me.

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