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U

Uccaiḥśravā

a horse born from nectar and considered to be a representative of Kṛṣṇa.

Ucchṛṅkhala

whimsical.

Udāna-vāyu

bodily air which moves upwards and which is controlled by the breathing exercises of the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system.

Udāra

magnanimous.

Udbhāsvara

eternal ecstatic symptoms or bodily transformations which indicate ecstatic emotions in the mind.

Uddhava

a learned disciple of Bṛhaspati and confidential friend of Lord Kṛṣṇa in Dvārakā; In Kṛṣṇa’s Mathurā and Dvārakā līlā, Uddhava is Kṛṣṇa’s best friend. He visited the residents of Vṛndāvana to console them in their grief due to Kṛṣṇa’s absence. In the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Kṛṣṇa imparts most important transcendental knowledge to Uddhava.

Uddīpta

the manifestation in a devotee of five, six or all eight ecstatic symptoms simultaneously.

Udghātyaka

a dancing appearance of a player in drama.

Udvega

the ecstatic symptom of mental agitation.

Ugra-karma

evil activities.

Ugrasena

the King of the Yadus, and the father of Kaṁsa.

Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi

a Sanskrit work that describes the complete science of mādhurya-rasa, the conjugal relationship with Lord Kṛṣṇa. It was compiled by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in the sixteenth century.

Ulūka

the son of Śakuni. He was killed by Sahadeva during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Śalya Parva in Mahābhārata)

Ulūpī

the wife of Arjuna and the mother of Irāvān.

Umā

wife of Lord Śiva. See also: Durgā

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh

the present Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

Unmāda

craziness, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Upadeśāmṛta

a short Sanskrit work by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī containing important instructions about devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Upādhis

material designations.

Upādhyāya

a teacher who makes a living teaching Sanskrit grammar.

Upala-bhoga

morning refreshments offered to Lord Jagannātha.

Upaniṣads

one-hundred and eight Sanskrit treatises that embody the philosophy of the Vedas. Considered the most significant philosophical sections and crest jewels of the Vedas, the Upaniṣads are found in the Āraṇyaka and Brāhmaṇa portions of the Vedas. They are theistic and contain the realizations and teachings of great sages of antiquity; The term upaniṣad literally means that which is learned by sitting close to the teacher. The texts of the Upaniṣads teach the philosophy of the Absolute Truth (Brahman) to those seeking liberation from birth and death, and the study of the Upaniṣads is known as Vedānta, the conclusion of the Veda. The contents of the Upaniṣads are extremely difficult to fathom; they are to be understood only under the close guidance of a spiritual master (guru). Because the Upaniṣads contain many apparently contradictory statements, the great sage Vyāsa systematized the Upaniṣadic teachings in the Vedānta-sūtra. His natural commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra is the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. See Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Vedānta-sūtra.

Upaplavya

the capital city of King Virāṭa.

Uparasa

the first kind of rasābhāsa, occurring when one tastes one kind of mellow and something extra is imposed.

Upāsanā-kāṇḍa

portions of the Vedas dealing with ceremonies of worship, especially demigod worship; The path of devotional service. One of the three departments of Vedic knowledge, upāsanā-kāṇḍa is taught by Nārada Muni. See Bhakti, Jñāna-kāṇḍa, Karma-kāṇḍa, Para-vidyā.

Upāsya

worshipable.

Upendra

Vāmanadeva, who sometimes appears as the younger brother of Indra.

Urugāya

the name of the Lord meaning “He who is glorified with sublime prayers.”

Urukrama

the Supreme Lord, who takes wonderful steps (especially as the dwarf-brāhmaṇa incarnation, Vāmanadeva).

Urvaśī

one of the heavenly Apsarās. She tried to seduce Arjuna when he was in the heavenly kingdom. Arjuna refused to satisfy her because he considered her the mother of the Kuru dynasty having taken Puru for her husband. Because of Arjuna’s refusal, Urvaśī cursed Arjuna to become a eunuch for one year. This curse took its effect during last year of exile of the Pāṇḍavas in the kingdom of Virāṭa; a woman from the heavenly planets who became enamored of King Purūravā.

Ūti

the urge for creation that is the cause of all inventions.

Utkala

the eldest son of Dhruva Mahārāja.

Uttama-adhikārī

a first-class devotee who is expert in Vedic literature and has full faith in the Supreme Lord; he can deliver the whole world.

Uttamaśloka

the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, who is worshiped by select poetry.

Uttamaujas

a prince of Pāñcāla, and a valiant warrior during the Kurukṣetra battle. He was killed by Aśvatthāmā while in his bed during the last night of the Kurukṣetra war.

Uttama

the brother of Dhruva Mahārāja.

Uttānapāda

the king who was a son of Svāyambhuva Manu and the father of Dhruva Mahārāja.

Uttara

a son of King Virāṭa. He was afraid to confront the Kurus when they stole the cows from his father’s kingdom. Arjuna revealed his disguise to this prince and then single-handedly fought with the Kauravas and defeated them all. Uttara was killed in the first day’s fighting at Kurukṣetra by Śalya.

Uttarā

the daughter of King Virāṭa and the wife of Abhimanyu. Virāṭa first want Arjuna to marry his daughter, but Arjuna declined and said that his son, Abhimanyu, should marry her. Uttarā became the mother of King Parīkṣit.

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