a horse born from nectar and considered to be a representative of Kṛṣṇa.


bodily air which moves upwards and which is controlled by the breathing exercises of the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system.


eternal ecstatic symptoms or bodily transformations which indicate ecstatic emotions in the mind.

a learned disciple of Bṛhaspati and confidential friend of Lord Kṛṣṇa in Dvārakā; In Kṛṣṇa’s Mathurā and Dvārakā līlā, Uddhava is Kṛṣṇa’s best friend. He visited the residents of Vṛndāvana to console them in their grief due to Kṛṣṇa’s absence. In the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Kṛṣṇa imparts most important transcendental knowledge to Uddhava.

the manifestation in a devotee of five, six or all eight ecstatic symptoms simultaneously.

a dancing appearance of a player in drama.

the ecstatic symptom of mental agitation.

evil activities.

the King of the Yadus, and the father of Kaṁsa.

a Sanskrit work that describes the complete science of mādhurya-rasa, the conjugal relationship with Lord Kṛṣṇa. It was compiled by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in the sixteenth century.

the son of Śakuni. He was killed by Sahadeva during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Śalya Parva in Mahābhārata)

the wife of Arjuna and the mother of Irāvān.

wife of Lord Śiva. See also: Durgā

the present Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

craziness, a vyabhicāri-bhāva.

a short Sanskrit work by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī containing important instructions about devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa.

material designations.

a teacher who makes a living teaching Sanskrit grammar.

morning refreshments offered to Lord Jagannātha.

one-hundred and eight Sanskrit treatises that embody the philosophy of the Vedas. Considered the most significant philosophical sections and crest jewels of the Vedas, the Upaniṣads are found in the Āraṇyaka and Brāhmaṇa portions of the Vedas. They are theistic and contain the realizations and teachings of great sages of antiquity; The term upaniṣad literally means that which is learned by sitting close to the teacher. The texts of the Upaniṣads teach the philosophy of the Absolute Truth (Brahman) to those seeking liberation from birth and death, and the study of the Upaniṣads is known as Vedānta, the conclusion of the Veda. The contents of the Upaniṣads are extremely difficult to fathom; they are to be understood only under the close guidance of a spiritual master (guru). Because the Upaniṣads contain many apparently contradictory statements, the great sage Vyāsa systematized the Upaniṣadic teachings in the Vedānta-sūtra. His natural commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra is the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. See Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Vedānta-sūtra.

the capital city of King Virāṭa.

the first kind of rasābhāsa, occurring when one tastes one kind of mellow and something extra is imposed.

portions of the Vedas dealing with ceremonies of worship, especially demigod worship; The path of devotional service. One of the three departments of Vedic knowledge, upāsanā-kāṇḍa is taught by Nārada Muni. See Bhakti, Jñāna-kāṇḍa, Karma-kāṇḍa, Para-vidyā.


Vāmanadeva, who sometimes appears as the younger brother of Indra.

the name of the Lord meaning “He who is glorified with sublime prayers.”

the Supreme Lord, who takes wonderful steps (especially as the dwarf-brāhmaṇa incarnation, Vāmanadeva).

one of the heavenly Apsarās. She tried to seduce Arjuna when he was in the heavenly kingdom. Arjuna refused to satisfy her because he considered her the mother of the Kuru dynasty having taken Puru for her husband. Because of Arjuna’s refusal, Urvaśī cursed Arjuna to become a eunuch for one year. This curse took its effect during last year of exile of the Pāṇḍavas in the kingdom of Virāṭa; a woman from the heavenly planets who became enamored of King Purūravā.

the urge for creation that is the cause of all inventions.

the eldest son of Dhruva Mahārāja.

a first-class devotee who is expert in Vedic literature and has full faith in the Supreme Lord; he can deliver the whole world.

the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, who is worshiped by select poetry.

a prince of Pāñcāla, and a valiant warrior during the Kurukṣetra battle. He was killed by Aśvatthāmā while in his bed during the last night of the Kurukṣetra war.

the brother of Dhruva Mahārāja.

the king who was a son of Svāyambhuva Manu and the father of Dhruva Mahārāja.

a son of King Virāṭa. He was afraid to confront the Kurus when they stole the cows from his father’s kingdom. Arjuna revealed his disguise to this prince and then single-handedly fought with the Kauravas and defeated them all. Uttara was killed in the first day’s fighting at Kurukṣetra by Śalya.

the daughter of King Virāṭa and the wife of Abhimanyu. Virāṭa first want Arjuna to marry his daughter, but Arjuna declined and said that his son, Abhimanyu, should marry her. Uttarā became the mother of King Parīkṣit.

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